Pz22 manufacturers use Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) to support constituents in electronic equipment mechanically. PCBs also offer the essential electrical interconnections between the components fixed on them to keep copper pads and traces existing on the PCB surface. Pz22 manufacturer makes such PCBs from copper-clad laminates, consisting of a sheet of copper pasted on one or both sides and base reinforcing material on the substrate. The industrialist eliminates undesirable copper from the copper-clad laminate while holding essential copper pads and traces.
Let’s look at some of the essential characteristics, types, and benefits of copper-clad laminate, making it highly necessary for PCB making.
Types of Copper Clad Laminates
Two primary copper-clad laminates that are present in the market are:
- One with the substrate made of organic materials.
- Second, the substrate is composed of inorganic material.
1. Organic material substrate
The substrates composed of organic materials are highly versatile and have the reinforcing material as fibre paper, glass felt, or glass fibre cloth, saturated with resin adhesive. After the resin dries, bonding them at high temperature and pressure when fabricators cover the substrate with copper foil. Substrates composed of organic material develop chunks of copper-clad laminates, making PCBs in the helpful electronic industry.
2. Inorganic material substrate
The strengthening material in substrates is composed of inorganic materials, and they are usually ceramic or metals such as iron, copper, or aluminium. With a thin insulating layer in between, fabricators usually bond copper foils on such substrates. The protecting layer has high thermal conductivity as this type of PCB mainly addresses very high-frequency operation or thermal management in tools.
Classification of Copper Clad Laminates
Besides these two broad types, there is a further classification of copper-clad laminates with substrates composed of organic material, which is highly beneficial and used in numerous applications. Read out the organic copper laminate classification:
- Material: the copper-laminate is encompassed paper base, compound type, glass fibre cloth base, etc., and has insulating resin such as epoxy, phenolic, polyester, etc.
- Performance: they have high performance as they have high heat resistance, environmental performance, low coefficient of thermal expansion, low dielectric constant, chemical resistance, etc.
- Mechanical Rigidity: they are highly flexible and are highly rigid.
- Copper Cladding: they have copper cladding of standard copper foil, LP copper foil, HTE copper foil, different thicknesses, etc.
Fabricating Copper Clad Laminates
For copper-clad laminates, fabricators usually use prepreg, a supporting material already infused with a resin encompassing a proper curing agent. The resin arises in a pre-dried and unhardened form. The fabricator heats the prepreg and sets it in a mould between two layers of copper foils like a sandwich. If it is essential, you can also add more additional resin to the sandwich. Heating the combination allows the resin to make the prepreg stick and flow to the copper foil. A further variety of pressure and temperature is essential to bond the prepreg to the copper foil.
Lead-Free Copper Clad Laminates
manufacturers do not use PBDE and PBB following the RoHS regulations when fabricating lead-free copper clad laminates. Moreover, prepreg suppliers provide the PN system, which main resin is a Brominated Epoxy resin, and Phenol-Formaldehyde resin, which act as a curing agent for helping in fabrication.
Selecting Copper Clad Laminates
Most of the PCB suppliers select these copper-laminates based on performance and their physical strength. If you want to buy a copper-clad laminate, you need to consider a few things for the best use of copper-clad laminates.
- Size: As copper-clad laminates are helpful for the PCB’s base, they are present in different sizes as per the user requirement. Sze of the laminate plays a vital role manufacturer usually set up smaller PCBs in arrangements for ease of manufacturing. Ther are specific parameters of concern include the width, length, diagonal deviation, and warpage of the copper-clad laminate, which is necessary to meet particular requirements.
- Appearance: Built-up and supervision processes may focus the surfaces of a copper-clad laminate to imperfections such as wrinkles, dents, scratches, bubbles, resin points, pinholes, etc. so, the appearances play a vital role while selecting a copper-laminate as lack of appearance will reduce the visual aspect of the copper-clad laminate, and also lead to lower the performance of the resulting PCB. So, PCB makers prefer copper-clad laminates with a smooth and flat appearance.
- Physical Performance: pz22 manufacturers precisely look for bending strength, heat resistance, dimensional stability, peel strength, and punching quality in copper-clad laminates.
- Electrical performance: the electrical performance of PCB is affected by the properties of copper-clad laminates, including the dielectric constant, dielectric loss tangent, surface resistance, arc resistance, insulation resistance, volume resistance, electric strength, comparative tracking index, dielectric breakdown voltage, etc. so, based on these specific parameters various PCB designer select the laminate for their applications.
- Chemical Performance: Reliant on the application, the variety of a copper-clad laminate must meet necessities and requirements of resistance to flammability, glass transition temperature, chemical reagents, coefficient of thermal expansion in the Z-axis, dimensional stability, etc.
- Environmental Performance: The copper-clad laminate should have water absorption specifications.
Standards for Copper Clad Laminates
A standard copper-clad laminate is manufactured based on flammability ratings, crosswise and lengthwise flexural strength, peel strength at elevated temperatures, volume resistivity, water absorption, dissipation factor, dielectric breakdown, and permittivity. Further, they are tested for blistering, warp, and twist for proper standardization.
Advantages and applications of Copper Clad Laminates
These copper laminates are highly advantageous as they allow the designer to place the copper foils acting as a ground plane at a constant distance. When allocating power to a system, this procedure decreases the modal resonances by dropping the inductance between the two planes. It decreases the impedance of the system and reduces the number of filter capacitors required. These advantages of lamination make it applicable for numerous applications such as:
- Connectors & oscillation reeds
- PCB field
- PCB collector (electrode backing) materials
- Garments accessories (eyelet, etc.)
- Electric and electric springs, switches
- Communication cable
- Cable armouring
- Mobile phone mainboard
- Ion battery production lamination with PI film
- Lead frames